Types of Job Interviews
Two commonly interviewing techniques used by the company for conducting job interview is a traditional and behavioral job interview. in the practice, companies often combine those two techniques to gain more accurate data.
1. Non-directive interview
This technique uses open-ended questions such as “why do you want to work for this company,” and “what your strengths and weaknesses.” Success or failure in a traditional interview will deeply depend on the ability of the applicant to communicate by answering the questions, rather than the truth or the content f the answer given. Moreover, the questions asked are clarifying what is written in the application letter and the applicant’s CV. In the traditional job interview, a recruiter usually wants to find the answer of this 3 (three) questions:
- Does the applicant have the knowledge, skills, and abilities to do the job?
- Does the applicant have the enthusiasm and work ethic that corresponds to the recruiter’s expectation?
- Does the applicant be able to work in a team and have personalities that fit with the company culture?
2. Behavioral Job Interview
This job interview type is based on the theory that “performance” in the past is the best indicator to predict the behavior o the applicant in the future (read: when doing his work). Job interview with this technique is often used to recruit employees at managerial level or by the company in which in its operations always look for the personality problems as the main priority. It intends to determine the applicant’s response to a particular condition or situation so that the interviewer can see how applicants perceive the challenges/problems and find the solution. The questions usually asked are; “tell me your thoughts when you failed to achieve the target set” and “give some examples of what sort of things you do when you are trusted to handle multiple projects at once.” To answer these questions the applicants need to prepare for the recall situations, actions, and outcomes that occur while ago. In addition, it is important for the applicants to provoke further questions from the interviewer in order to explain the detail picture of the situation he faced. It requires good communication skills of the applicant. The success or failure in this interview is highly depending on the ability of the applicant to describe the situation related to the interviewer’s questions in detail and focused. In behavioral job interview, the applicant must be able to formulate an answer that includes 4 (four) things:
- Describing the current situation,
- Describing the actions taken to respond to the situation,
- Telling the results achieved, and
- Telling the lesson learned from the event (what is leraned).
In the behavioral interview, the most commonly technique used is called S-T-A-R or S-A-R or P-A-R:
Situation/Problem/Task: The applicants are asked to describe the situation or the tasks that should be implemented in the past. Applicants should describe the situation or task specifically, detailed, and understandable for the interviewer. Situations or tasks described can be derived from previous work, experiences during the school, certain experiences or events relevant to the questions of the interviewer.
Action: Applicants are requested to describe the actions taken in dealing with the situation/problem/task above. In this case, the applicant must be able to focus on the problem. Though perhaps the existing problems handled by some person or teams, applicants must provide explanation about his roles in the team – do not say what has been done by the team but what has been done by the applicant as a part of team.
Results: Applicants are asked to explain what results are achieved. What are the obstacles that occur when the results are not achieved what happens next after the issue is completed.
Then, what lessons can be learned by applicant from the incident. In an interview using behavioral job interview technique, the questions above are often added to the following questions:
- Tell me/us when you had a very unpleasant situation and how you managed to get out of the situation.
- Tell me/us how you convince your clients when you are presenting.
- Try to tell me how you cope with a situation where you have to perform a lot of tasks and you must make a priority which task should take precedence.
- Can you tell me what the most difficult decision that you have made in the last year? Why is that?
- Tell us why your team failed to reach the target in the previous year and how do you motivate the team so they can achieve the goal and success in the next year.
- How do you resolve the conflict? Can you give an example?
- Can you tell me an event in which you try to complete the task and it failed?
- Tell me what will you do when you are forced to make an unpleasant rule for the employees but profitable for the company.
As a process that involves the interaction between the two sides, in a job interview, the applicants are also usually given the opportunity to ask questions. Therefore, it would be very nice if the applicant prepare some questions, for example:
- What is expected of me if I am accepted for this position?
- In the experience here, what is the biggest challenge for the incumbent?
- Is there any training (internal and external) that can help me to contribute more if I am accepted to work in this company?
- Are there specific things outside the job description that I have to finish within a certain time?